What Relation Between Serum Alanine Transaminases and Type 2 Diabetes?



Liver is an important element for digestive system in particular and body in general with multiple functions including production of biochemicals, detoxification, among other roles. Also liver is vital for blood considering the decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, as well as its functionality in relation with different diseases that touch blood such as type 2 diabetes.

When liver is injured or suffering certain damages, the alanine transaminase (ALT) is found in the body. ALT is an enzyme produced by liver cells and its role is helping the body metabolize proteins. The founding of ALT in the serum is an indicator of tissue injury, and insulin resistance, something that leads to type 2 diabates.

But what kind of relation that may be found between type 2 diabetes and Alanine Transaminases? This what has been subject to a new study which is carried by a group of researchers from Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College Aurangabad, Maharashtra India.

Type 2 Diabetes is scientifically defined as a metabolic disorder because of relative deficiency of insulin, something that leads to disorder in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. And in type 2 diabetes, liver plays an important role in carbohydrate homeostasis and maintaining level of glucose in blood.

In quest of answers, the study “investigated 90 cases of T2DM for liver enzyme ALT, lipid profile.” Researchers took blood samples from the participants after an overnight fasting, then “assayed for serum ALT, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low and high density lipoproteins.” Results showed that “serum ALT levels were raised significantly among 36 (40%) cases of T2DM in studied group.”

Researchers said that “significant positive association of ALT was observed between BMI and W: H (r= 0.401, 0.532) and serum TG, LDL (r= 0.431, 0.555) levels. Significant negative association was observed between ALT and HDL (r=-0.072) among cases. Our findings suggest marked risk of developing liver and cardiovascular disease due to elevated ALT and atherogenic lipoprotein profile in patients with T2DM.”

To compare with other studies that have  “linked association of ALT with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and T2DM”, researchers said that the study findings are in consistence with those of Adeniran Samuel Atiba et al that was published in 2013. Also, this study’s results are “in agreement with Idris et al (2011), Nannipieri N et al (2005) confirming the role of insulin resistance in pathophysiology of liver diseases.”

Researchers summed up that the “serum ALT, a surrogate marker of liver damage is elevated with dyslipidemia in the patients of T2DM.” But, they stressed out that “early detection of liver abnormality and intervention will help to prevent further progression to liver cirrhosis and chronic liver disease.”

New Study: No Correlation between Hormonal Contraception and Women Sexual Issues

Pregnant Woman

Every fertile woman has the ability to become pregnant. But when she’s not ready, she turns then to contraceptive methods. The latter that are also referred to as hormonal methods are based on hormones that could be estrogen or progesterone, or both. These hormones are placed or injected in the body, or taken orally as it’s the case with oral contraceptives that are the most famous methods of contraception. Yet, a number of scientific studies have tried to find an answer to relation between these contraceptive hormones and some issues in sexual function of women.

A new scientific study carried by a group of researchers from Department of Sexological Research, Psychiatric Center Copenhagen, Denmark, is one of these studies that explored the relationship between women’s sexual function and Combined Hormonal Contraception (CHC).

According to this study, which is published in an International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, several studies have associated CHC “with an increase in sexual desire measured by the FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index) Desire domain score compared to desire at baseline.”

And based on that hypothesis correlating between hormonal contraceptives and sexual issues, the mentioned study has investigated a sample community of active women. But, researchers find that “contrary to (our) hypothesis, CHC use was in general not correlated with a higher level of sexual problems or sexual distress.” However, they “found that more women using CHC containing anti-androgenic progestin reported sexual problems and sexual distress than women using CHC containing other progestins.”

Researchers stressed out that this study “is the first reported cross-sectional investigation of CHC users that has included the FSDS (Female Sexual Distress Scale) questionnaire to measure sexual distress.” The results revealed that “significantly fewer CHC users reported sexual distress compared to non-HC users and that fewer women in the OP-CHC group reported sexual distress compared to both the AAP-CHC and non-HC groups.”

To find more detailed answers about what’s related to women sexual issues, researchers have investigated several other factors. “The results showed that age, children living at home, alcohol consumption, and smoking were not correlated with women’s sexual function” the study mentioned.

But what’s related is the couple’s relationship status. “In our study, a short-term stable relationship (0–2 years) was significantly correlated with not having sexual problems, and a long-term stable relationship (3 or more years) was significantly correlated with having sexual distress” researchers said.

Nonetheless, the relationship stability is a not always a positive sign, but worries of a relationship partners can transform into a negative effect. The study stated it clearly that “a stable relationship could have a positive effect because of greater sexual activity in the initial stages, but have a negative effect later in the relationship derived from worrying about partner satisfaction and other relationship problems.”

To sum up, this study has eliminated correlation between CHC and women sexual issues, and researchers expressed that “CHC use in general is not correlated with a higher degree of sexual problems or sexual distress.” Though, they are calling for “further research and longitudinally controlled studies, including blood samples … to reveal the nature and extent of CHC effects on women’s sexual function.”

Intermittent Fasting is an Easy Way to Lose Weight

Weight Losss Obesity has become a disturbing issue for the world health, and its rates are considerably high over the world. Now, people have become more aware of the seriousness of this problem and started following different strategies to lose weight including restricted diets and sporting activities. Yet, there are new methods that are scientifically tested and guaranteed effectiveness.

If you haven’t heard about intermittent fasting (IF), then the term indicates fasting for certain periods of time. To give more detailed description, the IF refers to skipping meals for periods that would range between 14 and 36 hours. It is a new answer to losing weight and if you follow the right schedules, you’ll bring balance to your health. This is beneficial and really worth it.

For decades, intermittent fasting has been subject to different scientific studies that made significant experiments both on humans and rodents. A recently published study carried by a group of researchers from Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, has provided evidence about the effectiveness of intermittent fasting which is also referred to as Intermittent Energy Restriction (IER).

The study stated that “studies in rodents and humans demonstrates that IER (50-100% ER on restricted days) is capable of promoting weight-loss and/or favourably influencing an array of cardiometabolic health indices, with equal or greater efficacy than CER.”

The current study has been reference for several articles interested in the subject such as this one published here on Wikipedia that also provided a detailed description for intermittent fasting as “an umbrella term for various diets that cycle between a period of fasting and non-fasting.”

If diet focuses on what you eat, intermittent fasting is concerned about time and schedule of your meals. By following a plan, you won’t be obliged to cut down your calories, but instead you reschedule time span between your meals. Intermittent fasting is beneficial in different levels and it’s a great way to losing weight and getting a healthier body.

According to the aforementioned study, IF helps also in improving cardiovascular health. Researchers stated that “the majority of IER (60-85% ER/alternate days) trials spanning four to 12 weeks have consistently demonstrated global improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, encompassing enhancements in glucose metabolism”.

The ER has also noticeable effects on chronic diseases and “can confer protection against chronic diseases including T2DM and CVD” the study stated. Other scientific searches revealed that intermittent fasting can also have great effects on reducing cancer risks as well as on gene repairing and longevity.

The widespread idea of having a breakfast as a king, and a lunch like a prince, and dine like pauper is no longer an appropriate answer to successful weight loss strategies. But, intermittent fasting can bring a lot of benefits to your fat loss and your health in general.

Factors behind Failure of Implementing Enterprise Resource Planning Systems

Enterprise Resource Planning

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are software packages that are used in business to help companies manage their resources. These software systems help in collecting data from several sections of the business activities such as human resources, sales, finance, production, and so on. The implementation of these systems in today’s business has become an important tool for companies that look forward to survive competition and put their organizations on the pathway of big corporations.

According to several researches, many companies have effectively implemented the ERP systems and get full benefits, but many others have failed in the mission and complained of the disappointing results. A number of researches have been conducted to understand what’s behind these failures including a recently published study carried in Sri Lanka.

As mentioned by this study “ERP systems, if implemented properly, provide enormous benefits to organizations. However, not all ERP implementations deliver the promised enterprise improvements. There are many situations where ERP implementation has become a failure.”

The study which is published recently in a Journal of Enterprise Resource Planning Studies has tried to find out the factors that lie behind the implementation of these systems through clients and consultants perspectives.

The aim of carrying the study was “to identify significant factors that have an impact on ERP implementations, to find out the perception of the client and consultants on application of these factors and to recommend a set of guidelines to overcome the poorly practiced implementation factors in order to avoid failures in future ERP implementations.

The study is conducted by researchers from School of Management, Plymouth University, United Kingdom and University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. To find the answers of ERP implementation failures, researchers have analyzed a number of answers they got through questionnaires they used in their deductive approach.

As already mentioned, the research tried to find out failure factors from both consultants and clients’ perspectives. The study comes with conclusions that factors behind failures of ERP implementation “are product selection procedure, project planning, client commitment, (by consultants) competency of consultants (by clients) and communication of support requirements during the pre-implementation stage (by both parties).” Researchers added that “level of practice of rest of the factors is good according to both clients and consultants.”

Researchers mentioned that in this study they have focused only on micro factors. But they also stressed out that “macro factors (regional, government, economy and economic growth, etc) also have an impact on ERP implementations.”

The ultimate objective of looking for factors behind implementation failures is to bring rich lessons for those businesses that are planning to implement these systems. Learning failure factors means to avoid them, and instead conduct successful implementation of these ERP systems that have become great tools in effective management of businesses.

Language Proficiency Affects Students’ Learning

Univesrity Students


As the world is getting more and more into globalization, the number of people learning in foreign languages is always increasing. For students,  especially those that study overseas, a certain level in the new language of learning becomes a challenge as they are taught in a language they do not necessarily master. So, what are the effects of language proficiency on students in the success of learning process?

A new research has put this problem under scrutiny and tried to find the right answers for the question. This study is carried by researchers from Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia, and published in a Journal of e-Learning and Higher Education. The aim of the research that was carried for six years was “to estimate the magnitude of the effect of language proficiency on the results of a course…” as mentioned in the paper.

Researchers took as sample Russian and Estonian students that are being taught in English language in a course at the Department of Building Production in the Faculty of Civil Engineering. The purpose was to “to quantify the extent to which levels of language proficiency affect course outcomes.” In the study, Researchers explained that “none of the students in the sample were taught in their native language.”

With globalization that sweeps away cultural borders, communicative skills are required to face any sort of cultural boundaries including in higher education such as in Universities and engineering schools. In these institutions, students are taught in a foreign language. Thus, the proficiency of students in this language defines how their learning process is effective, and how they understand what they are being taught.

The study finds that students that have language proficiency at the “B2 level”, which is equal to rank 4 in an international scale of 6 ranks to measure language proficiency, can easily get benefits of the course. The study stated that “the B2 level would provide an appropriate minimum proficiency level for students enrolling in a course taught in a foreign language.” This is not something which is easily reached by students with fewer skills. The study then stressed out that it does not mean that “a lower level of language proficiency cannot be overcome through student effort.”

With this global environment in education, the mastering of the language is a real obstacle. The latter can be overcome by the student’s efforts. But, as the study mentioned “with greater efforts at mitigation it probably could be reduced and, if none were in place, then it seems reasonable to assume that the magnitude of the disadvantage would be greater.”

The ultimate result we can come out of the study is that students’ understanding of language is the first important key to learn. Hence, their level of the language in which they are being taught affects their understanding, something that defines in turn the effectiveness of their education.