What Relation Between Serum Alanine Transaminases and Type 2 Diabetes?



Liver is an important element for digestive system in particular and body in general with multiple functions including production of biochemicals, detoxification, among other roles. Also liver is vital for blood considering the decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, as well as its functionality in relation with different diseases that touch blood such as type 2 diabetes.

When liver is injured or suffering certain damages, the alanine transaminase (ALT) is found in the body. ALT is an enzyme produced by liver cells and its role is helping the body metabolize proteins. The founding of ALT in the serum is an indicator of tissue injury, and insulin resistance, something that leads to type 2 diabates.

But what kind of relation that may be found between type 2 diabetes and Alanine Transaminases? This what has been subject to a new study which is carried by a group of researchers from Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College Aurangabad, Maharashtra India.

Type 2 Diabetes is scientifically defined as a metabolic disorder because of relative deficiency of insulin, something that leads to disorder in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. And in type 2 diabetes, liver plays an important role in carbohydrate homeostasis and maintaining level of glucose in blood.

In quest of answers, the study “investigated 90 cases of T2DM for liver enzyme ALT, lipid profile.” Researchers took blood samples from the participants after an overnight fasting, then “assayed for serum ALT, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low and high density lipoproteins.” Results showed that “serum ALT levels were raised significantly among 36 (40%) cases of T2DM in studied group.”

Researchers said that “significant positive association of ALT was observed between BMI and W: H (r= 0.401, 0.532) and serum TG, LDL (r= 0.431, 0.555) levels. Significant negative association was observed between ALT and HDL (r=-0.072) among cases. Our findings suggest marked risk of developing liver and cardiovascular disease due to elevated ALT and atherogenic lipoprotein profile in patients with T2DM.”

To compare with other studies that have  “linked association of ALT with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and T2DM”, researchers said that the study findings are in consistence with those of Adeniran Samuel Atiba et al that was published in 2013. Also, this study’s results are “in agreement with Idris et al (2011), Nannipieri N et al (2005) confirming the role of insulin resistance in pathophysiology of liver diseases.”

Researchers summed up that the “serum ALT, a surrogate marker of liver damage is elevated with dyslipidemia in the patients of T2DM.” But, they stressed out that “early detection of liver abnormality and intervention will help to prevent further progression to liver cirrhosis and chronic liver disease.”


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