Does Spiritual Intelligence Affect Leadership Learning?


Leadership is having the ability and skills to lead a group of people or an organization in effective way to finally reach what’s intended-success. Every person has his own beliefs and ideas about leadership. Some considers it being a leader means being a guide for others to complete and achieve certain goals, and for others it means being a motivator for the team to reach the best of their selves and ultimately get success. But in general leaders are those that are able to inspire and set a vision for others to follow.

Becoming a leader requires certain skills and talents to define one’s leadership style. The student leaders get necessary elements in high institutions and learn how to lead. According to science, among some main elements that affect leadership learning is Spiritual Intelligence.

As defined in Wikpedia “Spiritual Intelligence is a term used by some philosophers, psychologists, and developmental theorists to indicate spiritual parallels with IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and EQ (Emotional Quotient). The term was first coined in 1997 by the speaker Danah Zohar and introduced it in her book “ReWiring the Corporate Brain.”

recently published study has gone through studying of spiritual intelligence and how it affects transformational leadership style displayed by student leaders. “Transformational leadership is a style of leadership where the leader is charged with identifying the needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change in tandem with committed members of the group” as defined in Wikipedia.

The mentioned study is conducted by a group of researchers from Malaysia and published in a Journal of Southeast Asian Research. Researchers used questionnaires answered by students from many parts of the world. The research stated that ‘Intelligence is a skill, an innate potential that can be developed through trainings. As old as it can be, it is a tool used to distinguish an individual from one another and also a predictor of where you stand in a society.”

Stating Zohar and Berman, the research shows that “Spiritual Intelligence is conceptualized as creativity, in-depth and transformative thinking… (It is) the development of desire and capacity for purpose, vision and values that juggles between reason and emotion, mind and body. It combines interpersonal communication skill and intrapersonal thoughts that surpasses the difference between self and others.”

Scientific studies have talked about a part in human brain that is responsible of spirituality, and some scientists call it “God Spot” which “is activated based on one’s emotional intensity and activity” as indicated in the study. “Spiritual Intelligence (is) a problem solving skill that incorporates one’s belief and value into one’s actions and decisions, which leads to a meaningful course of action” the study added.

The mission of the study was to investigate relation of transformational leadership with Spiritual Intelligence through its dimensions that include Consciousness, Grace, Meaning, Transcendence, and Truth. After analyzing the data collected, researchers confirmed that “dimensions of Spiritual Intelligence have a positive and significant correlation with Transformational Leadership. However based on the coefficient values, it showed that the student leaders are not fully transformed. They do not display the full characteristics of Spiritual Intelligence. It was found that among the dimensions, Grace has the highest correlation value.”

Customers Strategies to Regulate Buyer Remorse



Buyer’s remorse is when you buy something and regret the purchase later on. This feeling is mostly associated with the purchase of expensive items, but it can also arouse in cases when you buy even some creepy items. It is something psychological and research studies have proven that emotions influence one’s behaviors. So how regret impacts one’s behavior, and what are the strategies a customer who regrets a purchase follow to regulate this painful feeling?

A new study conducted at the University of Tunis El Manar, Tunisia, has tried to answer these questions. Researchers said that regret is a cognitive emotion people regulate the way they regulate any other emotions. “They engage in self-regulation process… Self-regulation refers to the process by which people initiate, adjust, interrupt, terminate, or otherwise alter actions to promote attainment of personal goals, plans, or standards” the study stated.

Scientists mentioned that “in principle, the negative consequences of regret can be regulated in two ways:

  1. Individuals can either actively change the conditions that led to regret;
  2. Or internally adapt the behavior of regret by adjusting their perceptions of responsibility and control of regret.

Something referred to by researchers as primary and secondary control. “The primary control strategies are directed to produce a change in the external world. And secondary control strategies are directed towards the optimization of motivational resources and perceptions (related to oneself)… Responses related to regret are more oriented towards oneself, while those related to dissatisfaction are more oriented towards others. The responses related to regret tend to be internal and silent, in the presence of introspective emotions such as shame, while those related to dissatisfaction tend to be oriented outward in the presence of emotions such as anger and frustration” the study stated.

After results analysis, researchers stated that “it has been shown that people are often motivated to regulate their post-decisional regrets.  It is a painful feeling which hides behind an imbalance and psychological discomfort sometimes unbearable.”

So, in order to regulate customer regret, researchers stated different strategies customers follow after making a purchase they are not satisfied of.

  1. “People can engage in activities focused on the objective to manage the level of regret felt by lowering the level of objectives fixed beforehand… lowering the level of objectives is a way to reduce the level of the objective to be reached by a decision to regulate their post-purchase regret.”
  2. “Regulation of regret can also be made through strategies focused on the decision: To focus on the decision by canceling it altogether or justifying it by denying the responsibility of the error allows managing the level of regret felt.
  3. “People can also focus on the alternative even to mitigate their post decisional regret. The regulation strategies of regret focused on the alternative consist in reversing or changing the chosen alternative, re-evaluating its quality but also abandoning it altogether.
  4. “When no action of return, of cancellation or change of decision is possible, a psychological work of reparation can serve to restore this psychological balance. So people can have themselves convinced that no error was committed. They adopt a positive attitude, considering only the positive aspects of the decision. Similarly, they can have themselves convinced that even if it was a negative experience, it is thanks to negative experiences that we learn to improve regret.”
  5. “People sometimes seek, after an experience of regret, a change of mood to forget their negative experiences. This will help regulate regret in them, for it is a way to overcome the past and minimize counterfactual thoughts.”

We are not always satisfied with the purchase decisions we make, and it happens when we pay for something and later on discover that we do not like it, or the amount we have paid in turn is much higher than its real value. Or we simply realize after a while that we have bought a useless item we’ll never use. So, we get into this painful feeling of regret. But, scientifically we always tend to regulate this feeling the way we do with any other feeling, and follow in this, a number of strategies and skills to come over this negative experience.