Study: Qualities of Entrepreneur to Succeed a Business


Success of an organization highly depends on the entrepreneur’s qualities and traits. Some entrepreneurs own success items and they turn things into success while others could not meet such big success if not, in worst cases, fail. So, what makes such successful entrepreneurs different from those that still turn around in their vicious circles and couldn’t meet any success?

Starting a business requires a lot of hard and smart work, and this is not at the hands of everyone. Even with a lot of plans and firm strategies, things won’t always work as expected. Some things that were supposed to work will just turn to fail, and unexpected problems will occur. At that moment comes the role of the entrepreneur that has the qualities of leading the business with passion and patience to come over such obstacles and reach success.

Small businesses are vulnerable and the presence of a good entrepreneur is more crucial. Small businesses are the locomotives of any economy and they have a considerable impact on the market.

A new study published recently has investigated qualities of entrepreneurship and “the common reasons that motivate people to become and work as entrepreneurs along with the constraints they face when starting and developing their business activity.” For that purpose researchers asked 250 people “engaging in the manufacturing trading and services sectors in Small and Medium Industries”.

To succeed as a leader of an organization, the entrepreneur needs a number of traits. The mentioned study stated what researchers called the five leadership qualities. The leader is required to be “honest, forward looking, competent, inspiring and intelligent”.

Besides, innovation and creativity is another factor that needs to be considered. A lot of studies have stressed the importance of innovation in business success, but implementing innovation requires an entrepreneur that believes in it and ready to adopt it into business.

Among the other factors researchers said contribute to the entrepreneur success including risk taking, innovation, communication, and connect with others.

  • Taking risk in taking appropriate decisions for their business activities;
    •    Innovation and creativity are the perception to accept new ideas;
    •    Confidence to be independent in taking decision and conduction their own business;
    •    Relationship with other to establish and maintain good relationship with people involved in business.

Being a successful leader doesn’t mean to be the source of every ideas, but to be intelligent enough to interact with others and get what necessary to push the business forward. As stated in the study, as entrepreneur you could learn a lot from “people you lead by asking intelligent questions and opinions.” Thus, you “will capable to increase credibility.”

The entrepreneur must be very intelligent by gently leading people toward understanding even when he knows the answer

  • Display emotions exactly in line with feelings
  • Make decision based on my core values
  • Demonstrate beliefs that are consistent with actions.

Researchers mentioned other entrepreneurial qualities that considered the significant characteristics for entrepreneur including to “believe in actions 59 % from respondents, analyze before actions 63% and listening the others 52 %”.

According to the results researchers acquired by their survey “Quality attributes of entrepreneurs that make big contribution to the high of entrepreneurial quality of business people are:

innovation and creativity 58,8%,

self confidence 63,2% ,

connection with others 55,6 %

and communication  51,6%

Researchers have summed up some of the factors needed to lead an organization to success into 4 main elements:

•    Planning – making decisions with regards to the future and making those plans happen.
•    Do – utilizing the fullest potential of resources people, capital and assets to ensure the success of the plans.
•    Activity – inspiring others to do their part effectively in carrying out the organization’s plans.
•   Controlling – step by step monitoring of the implementation process to see if changes are necessary to be made on the plans.

Prediction of Recurrence of Prostate Cancer after Surgery

Prostate Cancer


Prostate cancer is one of the spreading noncutaneous malignancies among men in several countries over the world. This disease’s challenge is that it develops over the years with no symptoms that tell of its existence. Symptoms appear only when the prostate becomes large and starts to affect the urethra.

To treat the disease, doctors use different types of treatment depending on each situation. Among the treatments used bone-directed treatment, vaccine treatment, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, cryotherapy, radiation therapy, expectant management or what is called (watchful waiting), and Surgery which is also referred to as radical prostatectomy. The latter is the operation to remove the prostate gland and some of the tissue around it.

The defy urology specialists face is that even with the removal of the prostate gland, there’s always a high chance that the disease will appear again over years.  A new study which is carried by a group of researchers from department of Urology of Vanderbilt University and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences has investigated features and predictors of recurrence of the disease after the radical prostatectomy.

Researchers tried to understand features and “characteristics associated with clinical and biochemical recurrence”.  For that purpose researchers identified 893 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Among the group of patients studied “26.0% sustained BCR during a median follow up of 55.0 months” as stated in the study.

Researchers of the study which is published in an International Journal of Research in Urology said that they “were able to identify common clinicopathologic predictors of BCR including PSA, Gleason Score, and the presence of ECE and SVI.”


PSA is produced for the ejaculate, where it liquefies semen in the seminal coagulum and allows sperm to swim freely. PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders.

Gleason Score

Gleason Score or the Gleason grading system is used to help evaluate the prognosis of men with prostate cancer. Together with other parameters, it is incorporated into a strategy of prostate cancer staging which predicts prognosis and helps guide therapy.


Extracapsular extensions


Seminal Vesicle Invasion

Researchers of the current study stated that “By studying a larger population with a wide range of pathologic findings, albeit in a retrospective observational design, we were able to identify risk factors for recurrence, in an effort to develop a more effective risk-stratification scheme that could optimize benefit and minimize harms associated with early radiation therapy.”

The aim of the study as stated by researchers is that “the implementation of this risk-stratification tool will optimize the use of early radiation therapy in patients with high-risk features after radical prostatectomy.”

Causes of Prostate Cancer

Causes of prostate cancer are not known up till now, but scientists have some observations. As discussed here by NHS, prostate cancer causes include:

Age: Men who are over 50 years have high chances of prostate cancer.

Family History: Men who have a father or a brother with prostate cancer below 60 years old have high chance of developing the disease.

Ethnicity: There’s no evidence why but prostate cancer affects more men with African-Caribbean and African descent, and less men with Asian ethnicity.

Obesity: Some scientific studies make connection between obesity and the disease.

Diet: Scientists still search the relation between diet high in calcium and high risks of getting the prostate cancer.

Exercise: Men who exercise have low risks of developing prostate cancer.


Contraceptives with Anti-Androgens May Cause Woman Sexual Problems

pregnant woman

Contraceptives that include the pill, the patch, and the vaginal ring work as tools to prevent pregnancy. Before the founding of contraceptives, people tried different methods including withdrawal, periodic abstinence, or some old forms of condoms. Yet those methods were mostly ineffective.

It’s until 1960 that the first oral contraceptive get administrative acceptance. Though they proved effectiveness in preventing pregnancy, but hormonal contraceptives has always been subject to a lot of controversy concerning their side effects on woman health including her sexual functions.

A lot of scientific studies have tried to shed light on effects of hormonal contraceptives on woman sexuality. This is the case of new research carried by a group of scientists from university of Copenhagen, Denmark. The study tried to investigate relation between combined hormonal contraception and women’s sexual function.

Researchers of the study which is published in Obstetrics & Gynecology: An International Journal emphasized on the type of progestin in the combined hormonal contraceptives. For that purpose researchers questioned a sample of “252 healthy, sexually active women aged 18 to 35”. Study’s questions focused on “Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), and questions about contraception use.”

Scientists started with the hypothesis that combined hormonal contraceptives have effects on sexual functionality.  But they noticed that “CHC use was in general not correlated with a higher level of sexual problems or sexual distress”. However it does not mean that there are no effects at all.

Researchers stated that effects on woman sexuality are noticed in women using hormonal contraceptives with formulations containing anti-androgenic progestins. “when stratifying the analyses according to the type of progestin, women using CHC formulations containing anti-androgenic progestins more often reported sexual problems and sexual distress than women using CHC with other progestins” researchers discovered.

What are anti-androgenic progestins?

Anti-androgenic progestins known as Antiandrogens or also called androgen antagonists were first found in 1960s. The Antiandrogens are therapeutic drugs, and they function by blocking the biological effects of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Antiandrogens are most frequently used to treat prostate cancer for men and for women they are used to reduce levels of male hormones that cause symptoms of hyperandrogenism.

Researchers stated that different other factors are related to women’s sexual function, and “age, children living at home, alcohol consumption, and smoking were not correlated”. What the scientists noticed is that “a stable relationship is a known influential factor”. What they mean by long a stable relationship is 3 or more years contrary to a short term relation which they said is not correlated with sexual problems.

Researchers discussed the correlation of long term relationship with sexual problems and sexual distress. They stated that “a stable relationship could have a positive effect because of greater sexual activity in the initial stages, but have a negative effect later in the relationship derived from worrying about partner satisfaction and other relationship problems.”

Though the scientists found that combined hormonal contraceptives have effects on woman sexual function, but they stated that “Some women may be more sensitive than others to the hormonal changes induced by CHC… The negative effects of CHC are possibly most important when combined with other factors that negatively influence sexual function.”

Combined hormonal contraceptives are one of the most used types of contraception for their effectiveness. Researchers of the study said that these study’s results should not be a concern for woman users of these contraceptives. Instead scientists said “However, if a woman using CHC complains of sexual problems, we would suggest a change in CHC formulation to a CHC without an anti-androgenic progestin or to a non-HC.”

Why Innovation is Important to Business Success?



What is innovation?

Innovation is coming up with a new idea and turning it into an effective process, a new product or service. The implementation of creativity and innovation in business is likely to incorporate success and help you stand competitiveness in the market. Innovation can be referred to as something new or introduced differently and has impact on market or society.

Organizations need development first to keep presence in the market, and second to be competitive. There are a lot reasons why you need innovation in your business. A successful business model won’t be developed if you have a walking dead organization, meaning to have a stagnated business that does not embrace change and refuse or don’t know how to let creativity breath come in.

You need instead dynamism on different levels. You may innovate by coming up with new ideas of new products or reshape existing ones. Innovation can also be implemented by improving services and the way the organization is operating. As businesses and activities vary, there are also different types of innovation, and you choose your model depending on your needs and markets’.

Innovation Importance

Innovation has always been so important, thus it was under the radar of academic research. A lot of scientific studies have been carried by researchers to understand innovation process and how can Innovation Impact Enterprises? They gone through importance of innovation for businesses and investigated the implementation of innovation in different models and measurement of performance.

With the new challenges of globalization and open markets, competition toughens considerably and need for change is becoming more crucial. A recently published study carried by researchers from a Faculty of Management and Economics in Czech Republic has investigated this defy and noticed how Czech business companies “assign big importance to both inner and outer innovation.”

The effective innovation process is something done strategically based on creative thinking and innovation strategy. Unlike the invention process that starts by problem and goes for solutions, effective innovation can start by supposing a solution and looks what problem it solves.

Innovation and Performance

Another study from South Africa has gone through the understanding of “conceptual framework of an innovation system model”. Researchers said that “Education and training bodies were found to be amongst the most important participants, supporting firms in the innovation system due to their contributions to the development of sufficiently qualified human resources and by their contribution to R&D capacity – two of the most important determinants of innovation”.

There are a lot of factors that affect innovation process of business including “science, technology and R&D intermediaries” as stated by the researchers. They also stressed on the importance of government as well as “Financial institutions and venture capitalists… due to the role that finances play in innovative activities.”

Innovation and Knowledge

One of the matters that should not be overlooked in innovation is relation between knowledge and innovation. Researchers focused that “knowledge and expertise are transferred serve as both a source for, and stimulus to, innovation”. So, effective and true innovation is led by knowledge. “The transfer of knowledge from universities to firms or from MNEs to their national branches was one of the better-known knowledge transfer linkages identified” the study confirms.

Measuring Innovation

Innovation is believed to be a generator of growth and success for businesses. As stated in this research “relation between innovation and performance provide evidence that this relation is positive”. Yet, measuring innovation results and their impact has not been something easy. It is something done based on different metrics. “Measuring innovation should be carried out effectively, efficiently (must bring relevant information to the corporate management) and economically (must be done at a reasonable cost)” as stated by the mentioned research.

What differs a business from another is the new ideas it comes up with. You can live on imitating others’ steps for a while, but this won’t last, or it won’t take your far away to meet success you opt for. To ensure success for your business, you need to think out of the box and come up with original ideas that might be in many times simple, but would define your business model and will lead success of your organization.

Impact of Consumer Reviews on e-Commerce Business


Sometimes when we want to buy something we are not used to, we get lost and wonder what to choose from the large list available in the market. In such cases, people usually tend to ask someone they know for a recommendation. This experience is still relevant in online shopping. But instead of asking friends and relatives about recommendation, people now turn to reviews to learn from others’ experience.

Reviews have become one of the first things an online customer would look for before making a purchase. With the quick spread of information, people share their purchase experience with others, bad or good. In some cases, customers search for reviews even before checking the product.

Importance of reviews and how they impact the purchase decision has become subject to a lot of scientific studies. Reviews in eCommerce have taken the position of word of mouth concept known in old marketing and how others’ opinion affects trust and purchase decision.

A group of researchers from Manning School of Business University of Massachusetts Lowell, Department of Operations and Information Systems, has led a new study to investigate the power of reviews or what the researchers referred to as “power of crowd”.

In recent years, reviews have proliferated and become one of the main factors of business trust and ultimately purchase decision. That’s why businesses should pay much attention to the user experience, and keep track of their reputation online. As stated by the study which is published in a Journal of Internet and e-Business Studies “Ensuring trust and maintaining popularity has a big impact on the future sales of businesses.”

The impact of word of mouth was restricted to person to person or to a small group of people, but the impact of reviews now has gone broader. Researchers stated that “The technology makes the cost of distributing information cheaper and more efficient. In online markets it breaks time and geographical boundaries for online shoppers”.

Always, the challenge of business success is trust, and e-business isn’t an exception. “When consumers make transactions online or explore a website, more often than not they do not know the persons or vendors they transact with. E-commerce brings challenges into the traditional trust constructing processes… Trust plays a key role in business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) online transactions, which affects the success of business for Web vendors.”

Online customers would imitate a customer’s experience. Thus, reviews then affect the consumer buying behavior and help the customer make informed consumer purchasing decisions. As stated by the research “Other consumers benefit from these evaluations and can now make better informed decisions about the sellers and the products they sell.”

Researchers stressed out that “Consumers are frequently influenced by online reviews and tend to mimic others’ behaviors. Group mimicking behaviors refer to the situations in which people include information from users’ behaviors and disregard their own information when they make decisions.”

As a business, you don’t complete hand on your reputation, but consumers make it. The study showed that “The opinions of consumers on the trustworthiness of sellers and the quality of product can be formed by online reviews. It implies that the popularity of a product or service can generate potential sales and revenues.”

To understand the effect of crowd on trust, researchers have taken hotels as a sample to study. They found that “the popularity of a hotel is positively correlated with the size of crowd following the business, and also impacted by other factors, such as price, location star levels, etc.” Yet, they mentioned that “5 star hotels are not necessarily more popular than 4 star hotels, and 4 star hotels are not more popular than 3 star hotels…and so on so forth… We find that the popularity of a hotel can be explained by consumers’ satisfaction on hotels’ value, location, and cleanliness.”

For online business, word of mouth has been changed to reviews. Business reputation and customers’ purchase decisions are impacted by others feedback and shopping experience. So, for a successful online presence, businesses should not ignore reviews and they should invest in improving any poor experience mentioned by users.

Use of Religion in Political Marketing


Religion has always been present in people’s lives and shapes how they live since the dawn of humanity. Over centuries, religion has been used for different purposes especially by those in power. In modern time, religion still a tool used to reach different goals. Today, the political use of religion is still one of the controversial matters in different countries over the world.

As part of their political marketing strategies and efforts to convince voters, political parties call for religion and include it as a persuasion tool. Several constitutions forbid the exploitation of religion for political goals, but it is still used even implicitly.

A new study carried by a group of researchers from Tunisia has investigated the use of religion as an advertising persuasion tool in political marketing. In the context of Tunisia, as it is the case in other Muslim countries, there still vivid confrontation between secularism and religiousness. Thus, the impact of religion might be deeper.

Marketing strategists and scientists understand well how religion impacts people’s behavior. The study stated “Religion has a strong influence on the behavior of the consumer as well as on his decisions… the degree of religiosity has an impact on the determination of consumer’s behavior.” For that, politicians try to take advantage to convince voters depending on their religiosity and dedication.

The study which is published in a Journal of Marketing Research & Case Studies has called marketing rules and relationship between advertiser (in this case politician or party) and consumer (in this case citizen and voter) to understand the use and impact of religion.

To understand that advertising relationship between voters and politicians, researchers based on marketing theories that measure advertising effectiveness “considered in three main approaches: (1) the economic approach, (2) the cognitive approach and (3) the emotional approach.”

Researchers come up with some lessons that “the religious content or not of an announcement has an impact on the advertising persuasion and hence on the poll intentions.”

In her Book Brands of Faith, Mara Einstein stated that “religion has become yet another product sold in the consumer marketplace.” In the context of American society and politics Mara said that “While the relationship between politics and religion has been historically awkward, today it borderlines on abusive.”

Because of that impact, a lot of countries have worked to forbid the use of religion in electoral campaigns, but it is still used as a background for political parties’ ideologies and rhetoric. Whenever it is possible, they address that religious side of people to gain support over their political rivalries.