Some Factors Affecting Online Customer Satisfaction


Success of any business is primarily based on user satisfaction which is a major predictor of online consumer behavior, and online business is no exception. But, what builds up this user satisfaction and motivates a user to like and use an online system or website and keep coming back. Knowing these factors that affect how your service is perceived is your step toward success.

A group of researchers from Amman Arab University, Jordan and George Washington University, USA have investigated factors that affect user satisfaction in using a web system or website. This new study which is published in Communications of the IBIMA Journal found three main predictors of e-service satisfaction which are design, navigation, and personalization.

When you visit a website for the first time, you feel you are unfamiliar with functionalities and how it performs. Yet if the website is well presented with a nice web design and well structured to facilitate browsing over pages, you certainly like it and keep visiting it.

Instead, providing a poor website directly affects users’ interaction. Researchers stated that “if customers believe that an organization’s website is hard to use, poorly designed, and doesn’t take into consideration distinguished services for each user, then customers are likely to move to other organizations’ websites.”

The quality of your e-service marks your online presence and differentiate your from other businesses. Your e-service’s performance is “offering enhanced satisfaction, encouraging repeat purchases and building loyalty… E-service quality may also affect customers’ emotional responses such as liking, joy, pride, dislike and frustration”.


In reference to other previous studies, researchers stated that “web user’s intention to revisit the website was significantly influenced by his/her positive attitude towards the website… time it takes to download a webpage, the graphical and textual features that affect the user’s sense of ease or comfort with the website and the aesthetics of a website should be considered in website design.”


Website navigation is how the website is organized including design, layout, links, and all information in the site. The study stated that “consumers can be easily turned off when the website is not easy to navigate.” As much as the website is easy to use, it helps improve customer satisfaction.

The study also stated that “navigation or interactivity was defined as the ability to allow the user and the company to communicate directly with each other without concern for distance or time.” And “communication is part of e-quality and is an antecedent to satisfaction.”


Researchers also mentioned that personalization or customization “is also an important aspect of website quality…Customization was defined as the ability of websites to present information tailored to individual requirements, or the capability to provide the customized information requirements of specific groups of customers.”

The study also stated “that the property of customization is a critical element and can considerably influence the performance of the website. The designers of websites should take into serious consideration the wide variety of the people who visit the websites in order to satisfy their expectations.”

This study investigated the impact of website design, navigation and personalization on e-service satisfaction, and found that these factors have significant influence. Building a well personalized website with good design and easy to use is an important element that helps organizations succeed because customers will like your web service and will come again.

Factors Affecting Quality Of Life in Patients with Diabetes



Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases of the modern time affecting large numbers over the world. It is estimated that the disease will reach around 4.4 % of the worldwide population in 2030 after it was only 2.2% in 2000. The number of affected people is expected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030.

Diabetes affects the quality of life of patients, and these effects differ from patient to another. So, how diabetes affects quality of life of diabetic patients and what are the factors behind that?

A recently published study conducted by a group of researchers from Spain has investigated these factors that impact quality of life of diabetic patients. Researchers defined health-related quality of life, to which they refer to as (HRQoL), as “the physical, mental and social aspects of the disease in a person’s daily life and its impact on health”.

To investigate the impact of diabetes on patients’ quality of life and assess related factors, researchers took as reference “population norms, in a sample of patients with diagnosed diabetes.” A sample of 1,187 of diabetic patients, of whom 53.6% are women, participated in the study by answering questionnaires and interviews.

The first notice by researchers in this study published in a Journal of Research in Diabetes is that “the highest impact of diabetes occurs in middle-aged women (45-54 years). It is noticeable that the highest impact of diabetes occurs in middle-aged women (45-54 years). This is the group with the highest likelihood of poor physical and mental health (OR = 12.0 and 6.9, respectively), and which would need a special program of action.”

As part of the study inspect, researchers investigated the association of a number of factors and their impact on the quality of life in diabetic patients.

Physical activity

Different studies agree that physical activity is so important for diabetic patients. The current research as well noticed this impact and how it affects the patient’s quality of life. Researchers referred to different studies including for instance a study by Sorensen et al in which they stated that “there is also evidence for the contribution to HRQoL improvement in the prescription of physical exercise in physically inactive patients with, or at an increased risk of developing, lifestyle diseases.”


Comorbidity is one of the factors that affect the physical and mental health of patients is comorbidity. The latter is defined as the presence of one or more additional disorders co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder.

Researchers noticed that “patients with diabetes who had some other non-psychiatric conditions diagnosed had worse physical health (and also worse mental health in women) than patients without comorbidity.”


Besides, researchers noticed that type of treatment is among the elements that affect quality of life of patients. The study stated that “regarding the variables of treatment, it is worth noting the high proportion of patients with poor health among those medicated with insulin. Of those with insulin alone 34.2% and 43.4% presented poor physical and mental health, respectively, and 30.5% and 40.4% for those treated jointly with insulin and OAD.”


Education is another factor that affects patients with diabetes. As stated by researchers “education is a protective factor in physical health in men.” The impact of education on the patient’s quality of life “can be explained by healthier lifestyles, a higher knowledge about their disease, and a greater ability to relate with their health care providers and to choose and adhere to a treatment” the study stated.


In this study, researchers noticed that “living with a partner appears as a risk factor for poor mental health in women with diabetes.” Referring to previous studies, scientists mentioned that “the predictive ability for HRQoL of the relationship quality, suggesting that it is not the marital status per se but its quality what would explain this association”.


It is scientifically evident that smoking has negative effects on diabetic patients, and smokers are likely to develop diabetes more than nonsmokers. So, does smoking cessation have any impact on quality of life of patients?

In accordance with previous studies, researchers said that the results of their study “were consistent with available evidence supporting the potential benefits of smoking cessation in diabetic patients.”

Impact of Corporate Image on Customer Loyalty and Business Profitability

corporate image

Corporate image is the organization’s reputation and impression left on company’s public. Necessarily, every organization has an image whether it works on it or not. In many cases, a small act by an employee can leave a positive or negative impression, thus help or hurt the organization.

A new study led by a group of researchers from Covenant University, Nigeria, investigated the impact of corporate image on customer loyalty and profitability.

The study which is published in a Journal of South African Business Research explained that “corporate image is formed based on the stakeholders’ perceptions of specific company actions as well as associated industry and nation issues…organizations sustain their corporate image by building strong and supportive relationships with all of their constituents- i.e. customers, suppliers, investors, community, government, etc.”

The corporate image has a great impact on stakeholders’ behavior that’s why organizations try to manage their image. The study stated that organizations “manage their image for many reasons among which are:

  • Enhancement of the corporate competitive advantage thus leading to higher profitability.
  • Promoting favorable relationship with the community in the environment they operate, else it may experience difficulty in recruitment, selection and maintaining the employee morale.
  • Influencing investors and financial institutions.
  • Establishing a corporate goodwill for the organisation.
  • Creating good identity for the employees thereby leading to their satisfaction.
  • Stimulating sales, thus influencing customer loyalty.
  • Promoting good relationship with the government, opinion leaders and various interest groups.

Employees are representatives of the company, and their satisfaction is important so as they reflect a good image. Researchers investigated how the employee satisfaction could affect the corporate image of an organization especially in a service business. They found that “the impact of employee satisfaction on profitability appears to be much stronger than other variables.” Researchers explained that “employee satisfaction is a function of an effective and good corporate image is accepted.”

Researchers also noticed that “employee satisfaction had a positive and strong impact on organizational profitability.” When the employee is satisfied, he would offer great services. In turn, great services have “a direct link with customer satisfaction. And when customers are satisfied, their patronage and loyalty increases, therefore profitability also increases” as mentioned by researchers.

The paper explained also the relationship between employee and customer satisfaction and how this is reflected on the company’s image.  It is stated that “motivated employees stay with the company longer and get to know their customers better, thus leading to better service, greater customer satisfaction, improved relationship and enhancement of the corporate competitive advantage.”

Researchers also discussed the relationship between service offering and profitability. As it is known in business “customer is king” so how he’s treated is surely affecting how he reacts to the organization. Researchers stated that “increase or decrease in organizational profit could be attributed to the level of customer loyalty.”

Physical environment as another variable that intervenes in corporate image is physical environment. The research stated that “impact of physical environment on profitability was also significant, which suggests that both internal and external physical work environment needs to be conducive, well ventilated; attractive, appealing, and free of hazards in order to get the best from the employees.”

The organization’s corporate image is something important to do well in business. As stated by the study “a strong corporate image increases customers’ confidence in products and services, in advertising claims and in the buying decision”.

Hence, maintaining a good reputation is vital for organizations. Researchers said that “Organizations showing strong image have better access to capital markets, which decreases capital costs and lowers procurement rates, meaning that an organization’s profitability grows with a better image, all things being equal.”