Study: Rosemary Leaves Have Beneficial Effect as Anti-Diabetic Agent

rosemary-leaves

For centuries, herbal medicine is famous worldwide and has been used since dawn of life. A lot of herbs and spices are claimed to have healthful components to treat several diseases. Among these herbs with healthful treatments is rosemary which is asserted by scientists for its effects on treating diabetes.

Rosemary is an herb from mint family “with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers”. Several scientific searches studied rosemary leaves and come with conclusion that this herbal plant can have effects similar to anti-diabetic medication prescriptions.

In this context, a new research which is published in a Journal of Research in Diabetes has gone this direction and stressed on how dried and powdered rosemary leaves can affect blood sugar and lipid profile.

Researchers of this study made experiments on 100 rats divided into “5 groups (20 rats/group) as follow: G1: Normal Control; G2: STZ-induced Diabetics; G3: STZ-induced Diabetic+ Glibenclamide; G4: STZ-induced Diabetic+ Dried rosemary leaves powder; G: Normal Control+ Dried rosemary leaves powder.”

After experiments that lasted 6 weeks and 45 days, researchers discovered different results. They noticed that there is an “improvements of body weight in STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with dried rosemary leaves powder compared with normal rats” and this may be as a result of “the increase of glucose metabolism, or may be due to its protective effect in controlling muscle wasting… and may also be due to the improvement in insulin secretion and glycemic control or may be due to the activation of  the β-cells and granulation returned to normal, like insulinogenic effect” as stated in the research.

What may stand behind this is that “rosemary stimulates insulin secretion from the remnant β-cells or regenerated β-cells and this may be through increasing betatrophin hormone (a new hormone, found in the liver that spurs the growth of insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas) secretion which increases the number of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas”.

Researchers also noticed that “treatment of STZ-induced diabetic rats with dried rosemary leaves powder significantly reduced blood glucose level to normal glycemic level, and this trigger liver to revert to its normal homeostasis during experimental (STZ-induced) diabetes.”

As stated in the study also “after treatment of diabetic group with dried rosemary leaves powder, a significant reduction (P<0.001) in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level was noted in respect to untreated streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic group.”

After experiments, researchers noticed also changes in the plasma level of TG (Total triacylglycerol) and TC (Total cholesterol) in rats’ blood. Researchers explained that “after treatment with dried rosemary leaves powder, a significant increase was noticed in comparison with diabetic group. Regarding the levels of TG and TC in plasma, dried rosemary leaves powder treated diabetic group showed 45.43 & 33.89 % decrease in respect to STZ-induced diabetic control respectively. ”

Researchers of the study mentioned that most studies use the extract of rosemary, but in this research, they used “dried rosemary leaves powder which is common in normal kitchens”. The overall results of “this experiment may indicate that the dried rosemary leaves powder has a beneficial effect as an anti-diabetic agent and its complications as well as improving lipid metabolism in diabetics”.

Food and Its Impact on Type2 Diabetes

diabetes-Obesity is a challenging problem in modern world especially in developing countries. Obese people are vulnerable to different health conditions including for instance heart disease and type2 diabetes. The more weight you gain, the more risky it becomes to increase blood sugar levels in the body.

It’s known that nutrition has a direct effect on one’s weight. When the calories you consume in your food and drinks are over than what your body needs, you start gaining weight. But gaining more weight makes you at risk of type2 diabetes. So, what type of food that raises the chances to becoming obese and help body improve the disease?

A recently published study led by researchers from Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Women’s University, Mumbai, India has investigated the impact of certain types of food on weight gaining and metabolic response.

In order to “classify food according to their hyperglycemic quality, glycemic response to equi-quantity of commonly consumed carbohydrate,” researchers compared rich foods including “biscuit, Chapatti, Puffed rice, Potato, and least for Rice…with that of white bread (reference) in healthy volunteers.” Then “the Blood glucose response to 100g of the test foods were compared with an equal quantity of standard food—White bread.”

To have an idea of the glycemic response, it is response to a food or meal is the effect that food or meal has on blood sugar (glucose) levels after consumption.

Researchers made significant notices. They noted that 100g of rice “would be expected to induce a higher glycemic response, but its response is equivalent to that induced by 20g bread only; much lower than that of biscuit and chapatti”.

Also, they noted that “100g Marie biscuit induced significantly higher glycemic response than the same amount of bread (p<0.01), rice (p<0.01), puffed rice (p<0.01) and potato (p<0.01).” Researchers stated that “weight ratio such as biscuit and puffed rice, have light and porous nature and are generally consumed in lesser quantities at one time. But most often, doctors and nutritionist encourage the consumption of these snacks to patients for their apparent lightness.”

For chapatti which is “prepared from whole wheat flour has been given preference over white rice” researchers noted “that the predicted glycemic response to regular serving size of chapatti (30g) is much higher than that of rice”.

On the light of this study’ results, there are certain foods that can increase the risk of improving diabetes than others. Healthy foods especially those rich vitamins are important in reducing susceptibility to improving type2 diabetes.

A study which is published in Journal of Research in Diabetes found that “deficient levels of vitamin D may predispose euglycemic person for diabetes and dyslipidemia. Vitamin D supplements in euglycemic individuals may play an important role in reducing the risk.”

What you eat has a direct impact on your health including sugar levels in blood, something that can affect your improvement of diabetes. The type of food you eat is important, but also the amount matters. For a healthy living, one should consider what he consumes including quantity and quality.

 

Factors Affecting Quality Of Life in Patients with Diabetes

diabetes-

 

Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases of the modern time affecting large numbers over the world. It is estimated that the disease will reach around 4.4 % of the worldwide population in 2030 after it was only 2.2% in 2000. The number of affected people is expected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030.

Diabetes affects the quality of life of patients, and these effects differ from patient to another. So, how diabetes affects quality of life of diabetic patients and what are the factors behind that?

A recently published study conducted by a group of researchers from Spain has investigated these factors that impact quality of life of diabetic patients. Researchers defined health-related quality of life, to which they refer to as (HRQoL), as “the physical, mental and social aspects of the disease in a person’s daily life and its impact on health”.

To investigate the impact of diabetes on patients’ quality of life and assess related factors, researchers took as reference “population norms, in a sample of patients with diagnosed diabetes.” A sample of 1,187 of diabetic patients, of whom 53.6% are women, participated in the study by answering questionnaires and interviews.

The first notice by researchers in this study published in a Journal of Research in Diabetes is that “the highest impact of diabetes occurs in middle-aged women (45-54 years). It is noticeable that the highest impact of diabetes occurs in middle-aged women (45-54 years). This is the group with the highest likelihood of poor physical and mental health (OR = 12.0 and 6.9, respectively), and which would need a special program of action.”

As part of the study inspect, researchers investigated the association of a number of factors and their impact on the quality of life in diabetic patients.

Physical activity

Different studies agree that physical activity is so important for diabetic patients. The current research as well noticed this impact and how it affects the patient’s quality of life. Researchers referred to different studies including for instance a study by Sorensen et al in which they stated that “there is also evidence for the contribution to HRQoL improvement in the prescription of physical exercise in physically inactive patients with, or at an increased risk of developing, lifestyle diseases.”

Comorbidity

Comorbidity is one of the factors that affect the physical and mental health of patients is comorbidity. The latter is defined as the presence of one or more additional disorders co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder.

Researchers noticed that “patients with diabetes who had some other non-psychiatric conditions diagnosed had worse physical health (and also worse mental health in women) than patients without comorbidity.”

Treatment

Besides, researchers noticed that type of treatment is among the elements that affect quality of life of patients. The study stated that “regarding the variables of treatment, it is worth noting the high proportion of patients with poor health among those medicated with insulin. Of those with insulin alone 34.2% and 43.4% presented poor physical and mental health, respectively, and 30.5% and 40.4% for those treated jointly with insulin and OAD.”

Education

Education is another factor that affects patients with diabetes. As stated by researchers “education is a protective factor in physical health in men.” The impact of education on the patient’s quality of life “can be explained by healthier lifestyles, a higher knowledge about their disease, and a greater ability to relate with their health care providers and to choose and adhere to a treatment” the study stated.

Relationship

In this study, researchers noticed that “living with a partner appears as a risk factor for poor mental health in women with diabetes.” Referring to previous studies, scientists mentioned that “the predictive ability for HRQoL of the relationship quality, suggesting that it is not the marital status per se but its quality what would explain this association”.

Smoking

It is scientifically evident that smoking has negative effects on diabetic patients, and smokers are likely to develop diabetes more than nonsmokers. So, does smoking cessation have any impact on quality of life of patients?

In accordance with previous studies, researchers said that the results of their study “were consistent with available evidence supporting the potential benefits of smoking cessation in diabetic patients.”

What Relation between Retinol Binding Protein 4, Insulin Resistance, and Diabetes?

Obese_Woman_Walking

WHO defines obesity as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. The obese person is the one with a BMI of 30 or more, to distinguish it from an overweight person who has a BMI between 25 and 30. A person becomes obese when there isn’t balance between calories he eats and what he uses.

Obesity has become an alarming problem for world health as 2.8 million people die each year due to overweight and obesity. The latter increases the risk of getting different diseases such as heart disease, certain types of cancer, arthritis, diabetes and others. To evaluate obesity’s effects in relation with these diseases it causes, a number of scientific studies have assessed this relation in quest of finding the appropriate answers.

In this context, a new published study which is conducted by a group of researchers from Physiology Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt, has worked on determining relationship between Retinol Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) and insulin resistance, something that has direct link with diabetes.

Researchers of the study started from the assumption that “Retinol binding protein (4 RBP4) attracted a considerable attention as an adipokine that provides a possible link between expression of adipose GLUT4 in adipocytes and insulin resistance.”

Based on results, scientists showed that “RBP4 levels were elevated in overweight and obese subjects and correlated positively with BMI.” The study made reference to previous studies that found that there’s a relation between RBP4 and the insulin sensitivity. “Changes in RBP4 have systemic effects on insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in humans” researchers added. And this has direct effects on glucose metabolism.

To carry their study, researchers divided the participants into 3 groups. After analyzing their collected data they noticed that “2hr (OGTT) glucose and lipid profile (total cholesterol, T.G, and LDL-C) were all significantly higher in overweight and obese groups as compared to normal group.”

Researchers said that “it is possible that an increased serum RBP4 prevents the transthyretin from exerting its β-cell stimulus secretion effects. In addition, RBP4 might have a direct role in the progression of lipogenesis, as it was found that RBP4 increased the expression of the gene encoding fatty acid synthase in adipose tissue.”

After making different data analysis, researchers come to a conclusion that “serum RBP4 levels were elevated in overweight and obese men as compared with normal weight subjects and were associated with increased E2/T ratio and HOMA-IR in obese men. In addition, direct effect of T and or E2 on RBP4 expression from liver or adipose tissue could not be excluded. Finally, the disturbance in E2/T ratio seems to affect RBP4 serum levels and insulin sensitivity in obese me.”

New Study Finds Correlation Between Diabetes, Obesity and Blood Pressure

Diabetes

 

Studies have often shown that there’s an association between blood pressure, diabetes and obesity and that’s what has been strengthened  by a recently published study under Research in Endocrinology Journal. The research has studied levels of some hormones and proteins in a group of patients’ bodies.

A group of researchers from the center of Health and Leisure Activity, at the University of Porto, Portugal studied the case of 57 normotensive and 23 hypertensive patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The researchers observed that patients with “T2DM and hypertension showed higher weight and BMI values than those without hypertension.” As mentioned by the study “approximately 70% of patients with diabetes have hypertension.”

The researchers noticed that “patients with T2DM and hypertension” have “significant increased levels of chemerin and a trend towards an increase in leptin levels.” The increased level of chemrin which “is known to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose” are seen as “markers of metabolic syndrome, namely obesity, high-plasma triglycerides and high blood pressure.”

According to the study “high chemerin levels are not only associated with hypertension, but also probably related with obesity and diabetes itself.” The study also has studied other determinant factors within the patients including protein adiponectin, and the hormone Leptin, the latter that “enhances the secretion of several cytokines and a reduction in its activity leads to insulin resistance.”

With the elements put under observation, the study comes to a conclusion that there’s a correlation between type 2 diabetes, obesity and blood pressure.

 

Uric acid is a biomarker of type 2 diabetes

Diabetes

 

Diabetes is considered a major health problem with increasing prevalence, and leading cause of morbidity, mortality and vast complications. In order to determine if a patient is diagnosed with diabetes, there are a number of metabolic biomarkers that are taken in consideration, and currently serum uric acid is not included. Yet, a new study finds that serum uric isn’t something to be overlooked in diabetes diagnosis.

Researchers studied 1205 patients and discovered that there’s direct correlation between uric acid and development of type 2 diabetes. According to the study “uric acid might have an important role in the determination of the beta cell function in patients with type-2 diabetes, augmentation of insulin secretion and improvement of glycemic control both in type-1 and type-2 diabetic patients.”

The study that was published recently at a Journal of Research in Diabetes was carried by a group of scientists at Aseer Central Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

The researchers said that they have used for the first time what they referred to as “regression equation”, a link between uric acid and insulin levels. So, “By this regression equation methodology, insulin secretion and levels can be easily determined by diabetologist or physician in routine clinical practice for type-2 DM patients” the study stated.